Basic Analog Circuits || Lecture One



Basic Analog Circuits

Dr. Eric Rosenthal

Office Hours Wednesday

Availability on Thursdays as well




Electricity is invisible


Meters, Oscilloscopes let us see what electric signals are doing

Power supplies- generate electricity

Function Generators- complex waveforms

How to measure, how to generate/create it


Amperage = water current


Current is measured in amps (

If there is no pressure there is no current, it measures the electrons movement through the circuit


Voltage = water pressure


Switch = valve

When switch is closed, the voltage from the battery allows current to run through the circuit. Electricity will not


Work = Power

Measured in watts

V x C …ohm’s Law


Electrons = negativity


Conventionally, flows positive to negative (due to Ben Franklin’s incorrect explanation of electricity)

but in actuality it flows from negative to positive


Two types of circuits

  • Series, current is always the same in amperes or milliamperes
  • Parallel, voltage is always the same in wattage/watts but the current will increase as more connections occur (lights are turned on)

60 times/second

Alternating Current = ~

Direct Current =


Not as energy efficient to use the “conventional light bulb” with filament (Edison lightbulb)

More usage is leaning towards efficiency, (ex. LEDs)


Voltage adds & Current capability stays in the same, when batteries are in series


Electro magnetic force is actually what voltage is,

the movement of the electrons creates potential energy which is harnessed in the current


Resistor resists the flow of electrons, measured in ohms, limits the current

¼ (.25) watt resistors usually used for electronic circuits

made of carbon, which is a conductor of electricity, along with most metals. Carbon is a poor conductor & when impurities are added it makes it even less conductive.

It isn’t temporal, as it’s simply added pressure (ie: pressing your foot down on a water hose, makes it more difficult for the water to flow)



Ohm’s Law





  • you need to be on a voltage that is right above it, to maintain accuracy. When it is at “1” it is too low V– is used to measure DC voltage ranges

V~ used to measure AC voltages coming out of a wall, at 60Hz alternating current

anything other than 60 Hz, you must used an oscilloscope

anything above 48 volts, be very careful

When measuring your DC power supply, you switch to the Volts side



Leyden (Leiden) Jar

Stores the charge of the electrons

Two pieces of metal rolled up around each other, separated by an insulator



REFERENCE || [Current]


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